Diabetes is one of the most common diseases of modern society. Worldwide, estimation shows that there are over 200 million people with diabetes. It is a chronic disease characterized by elevated blood sugar (glucose) levels. The blood glucose level is controlled by insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas. The task of insulin is to help move blood glucose into cells, where energy is dissolved and energy is obtained. People suffering from diabetes, regardless of which type, have elevated glucose values because their body can not transfer glucose into cells.
Causes of it may be:
- Insufficient insulin production by the pancreas.
- Damaged reaction of cells to insulin.
- Both causes simultaneously.
Diabetes has two types:
- Diabetes type 1 (insulin dependent diabetes). It is an autoimmune disease with a possible genetic predisposition.It occurs at any age, but most often in children, teenagers or young people. In this type of diabetes, the pancreas produces very little or does not produce insulin at all.
- Type 2 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes). This is the most common form of the disease. It mostly affects adults, but in recent years it also occurs in teenagers and young people due to excessive weight gain. In this type of diabetes, the pancreas most often produces insulin. However either that amount is not sufficient for the needs of the body or the cells are insensitive to the insulin.
Most of the 90 percent of people have type 2 occurs as frequently in the elderly population aged over 40 years. Unfortunately, because of unhealthy life it’s becoming usual for the younger population as well. It occurs in people who do not exercise, those who consume fatty or high-calorie foods and are overweight. Also people who have high blood pressure, elevated blood lipids, polycystic ovary syndrome and impaired glucose tolerance.
The occurrence of diabetes type 2 creates a double disorder. The first reduces insulin receptors in insulin cells and the inability to transport glucose into the cells as those cells in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver. External factors such as obesity, high concentration of fatty acids, reduced physical activity, age and other factors are those that develop diabetes type 2. These processes increases the concentration of glucose in the blood. The pancreas secretes large amounts of insulin to increase the intake of glucose into cells. Because in the cells there is insulin resistance, it secretes more insulin, eventually the pancreas is exhausted and decreases insulin secretion thus creating diabetes.
The Symptoms appear initially in a mild shape, and sometimes you need a few years ago to detect diabetes. The most common symptoms are:
- sleepiness after a heavy meal
- frequent urination and
- constant hunger expressed
Other symptoms might be:
- sweating ,
- dizziness and tachycardia,
- obstacles vision,
- frequent infections and minor wounds on his legs.
If you are suffering from diabetes, then you should follow a strict diet:
- Take care of the recommended daily energy intake
- Daily energy intake of food to distribute 5 to 6 meals, and also by the type of food
- Use as a source of carbohydrate foods with a low glycemic index entry as: broccoli, cauliflower, celery, peanuts, peppers, peaches, oranges, apples, pasta, lettuce, pineapple, cooked carrots, etc.,
- Sufficient intake of food fiber to 40 grams per day. We find it in: lentils, beans, peas, potatoes, corn, broccoli, apples, bread and more. Fibers intake swells in the stomach and have a sense of satiety.
- Sufficient intake of antioxidants, vitamins and minerals
- Avoiding the intake of sugar and sweets high in sugar.
- Avoiding alcohol
- Regular exercise for at least 30 minutes a day.